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Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management > Volume 45(4); 2017 > Article
국가직무능력 분석을 통한 4차산업 혁명의 교육방향 제안

Abstract

Purpose

NCS(National Competency Standards) is a systematic organization of knowledge, skills, and literacy required for performing tasks in industrial settings. This research aims to search for keywords that are important to us and to present key directions of education for the fourth industrial age in the future.

Methods

The systematic classification system of NCS was investigated and the classification code structure was analyzed. Among them, the frame and structure analysis of the classification code of quality was analyzed using R-program.

Results

This study grasped the quality classification situation of NCS and suggested improvement plan from the operational aspect of the fourth industrial revolution era.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this study suggested the idea of education direction of SMEs(Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) in the era of the 4th industrial revolution by understanding NCS which reflects Korean characteristics.

1. Introduction

The NCS is the knowledge or competencies required from individuals that are engaged in all types of occupations standardized and presented at the national level. The gist of the NCS is to reorganize the curriculums by centering on practices based on the NCS in order to cultivate competent persons that can be immediately inputted into the field. The NCS is consisting of a total of 833 job areas will be completely developed by next year and 250 job areas and 245 job areas will be additionally prepared in this year and next year respectively. The NCS is reorganizing curriculums and making learning modules to help the NCS takes root in the field. Learning module means standard teaching materials that unfolded the contents of theories and practices so that concrete jobs can be learned in order to convert the NCS into school education. Currently, various development teams such as education and training experts, field workers, qualification experts, job analysts, and employers gather to develop learning modules. One NCS consists of an average of 10 core competence units and is usually presented in levels 1 to 8. Higher numbers mean higher levels such as level 8 (doctors), level 7 (masters), level 6 (university graduates), levels 4~5 (junior college graduates), and level 3~4 (specialized high school graduates).

2. Material and Method

The classification system of the NCS represents the stepwise composition of National Competency Standards, centered on the type of job. This presents the overall roadmap for national incompetence standards development. Occupations were classified centering on the Korean Employment Classification of Occupations (KECO) and referring to Korean Standard Occupation Classification and Korean Standard Industrial Classification. The categories consist of ‘large categories (24) → medium categories (80) → minor categories (238) → minute categories (887)’ in order of precedence. The large categories are divided according to the Korean employment classification of occupations. The medium categories are classified when there are areas with similar types of job functions, areas with similar industries, areas with independently formed labor markets or similar career development paths, or areas with human resource development councils by industry within a large category. Minor categories are classified when there are areas with similar types of job functions or areas with human resource development councils by industry at the level of minor categories within a medium category. Minute categories are classified when there are areas with similar types of job functions or representative jobs among the jobs under the Korean Employment Classification of Occupations within a minor category.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1 Competency Unit

Jobs mean the minute categories under the NCS classification system and standards are developed in minute category units in principle.
The NCS classification system was created by taking into consideration two criteria of NCS development scope and unique according to skill type.
NCS is basically a classification system aimed at standardizing the jobs required by the industry. The upper classification of the classification is classified and given a name covering the lower classification items.
Competency units are sub unis of the NCS classification system and correspond to basic components of the NCS. Each competency unit consists of a competency unit classification number, the definition of the competency unit, competency unit elements (performance criteria, knowledge・skill・attitude), the scope of application, work situations, evaluation guidelines, and core competencies.
Table 1.
NCS Composition
Configuration Item Contents
competency unit code A serial number given to distinguish between different competency units and expressed in 14 digits
competency unit title The name of the competency unit is written
competency unit description The purpose, job performance, and scope of utilization of the competency unit are roughly described
competency unit element Important core sub competencies that constitute competency units are described
performance criteria Provide the criteria for the performance that an individual must reach in order to determine the achievement of each competency unit element
Knowledge, Skill, Attitude The knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to perform competency unit elements
range of variable Ranges and physical or environmental conditions related to the performance of competency units
Data, documents, equipment, tools, and materials related to the performance of competency units
guide of assessment Methods of evaluation of whether competency units have been accomplished and matters that must be considered during the evaluation
key competency Vocational competencies that must be basically equipped to perform duties by competency unit

3.2 Level System

Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training has introduced the Korean Qualification Framework (KQF), which means an integrated level system capable of linking various qualifications (education qualifications, vocational qualifications, etc.).
KQF's research has created models that can reflect the level of all industries. The basic characteristics of the model were the qualifications framework for setting the level for each competency unit based on education and training. However, the opinion that qualifications and education and training do not reflect the job content of the field has been continuously raised, and thus a new level of development has begun.
The new level includes the reflection of the job level of the industrial field, the qualification that can be recognized as an individual's ability, the presentation of education and training, and the avoidance of overlap between levels, which is the level system of NCS.
The NCS level system is systematized levels of jobs in industrial fields and is utilized in the linkage between ‘industrial fields, education and training, and qualifications’, in the presentation of stages of achievement of life-long learning abilities, and in the composition of qualification level systems.
When the NCS is developed, the levels of competency units and competency unit elements are rated and presented according to the eight-level system.
Table 2.
NCS's Level System
Level Configuration Item Contents
8 Level Definition A level at which the highest grade theories and knowledge regarding the relevant area can be utilized to create new theories, wide-ranged technical works can be performed with the highest grade skills, and authority and responsibilities for overall organizations and businesses have been given
Knowledge Skill A level at which the highest grade theories and knowledge regarding the relevant area can be utilized to create new theories and wide-ranged technical works can be performed with the highest grade skills
Ability A level at which authority and responsibilities for overall organizations and businesses have been given
Career A level that can be reached after continuously working at level 7for approximately 2-4 years
7 Level Definition A level at which wide-ranged technical works can be performed with high grade skills utilizing specialized theories and knowledge in the relevant area and obligations and responsibilities are necessary for others’ results.
Knowledge Skill A level at which specialized theories and knowledge in the relevant area can be utilized and theories and knowledge in close areas can be used and wide-ranged technical works are performed with high grade skills
Ability A level at which obligations and responsibilities are necessary for others’ results
Career A level that can be reached after continuously working at level 6 for approximately 2-4 years
6 Level Definition A level at which theories and knowledge in the relevant area are freely utilized within independent authority, diverse tasks are performed, and the knowledge and know-how in the relevant area can be delivered to others
Knowledge Skill A level at which theories and knowledge in the relevant area can be freely utilized and diverse tasks can be performed with general skills
Ability A level at which the knowledge and know-how in the relevant area can be delivered to others and tasks can be performed within independent authority
Career A level that can be reached after continuously working at level 5 for approximately 1-3 years
5 Level Definition A level at which quite complicated and non-routine tasks can be performed using theories and knowledge in the relevant area within comprehensive authority and knowledge in the relevant area can be delivered to others
Knowledge Skill A level at which theories and knowledge in the relevant area can be used and quite complicated and non-routine tasks can be performed
Ability A level at which knowledge in the relevant area can be delivered to others and tasks can be performed within comprehensive authority
Career A level that can be reached after continuously working at level 4 for approximately 1-3 years
4 Level Definition A level at which complicated and non-routine tasks are performed restrictively using theories and knowledge in the relevant area within general authority
Knowledge Skill A level at which theories and knowledge in the relevant area can be restrictively used and complicated and non-routine tasks can be performed
Ability A level at which tasks can be performed within general authority
Career A level that can be reached after continuously working at level 3 for approximately 1-4 years
3 Level Definition A level at which somewhat complicated tasks are performed using basic theories and general knowledge in the relevant area within limited authority
Knowledge Skill A level at which basic theories and general knowledge in the relevant area can be used and somewhat complicated tasks are performed
Ability A level at which tasks are performed within limited authority
Career A level that can be reached after continuously working at level 2 for approximately 1-3 years
2 Level Definition A level at which proceduralized and routine tasks are performed using general knowledge in the relevant area under general instructions and supervision
Knowledge Skill A level at which general knowledge in the relevant area and proceduralized and routine tasks are performed
Ability A level at which tasks are performed under general instructions and supervision
Career A level that can be reached after continuously working at level 1 for approximately 6-12 months
1 Level Definition A level at which simple and repetitive tasks are performed using basic general knowledge such as understanding of characters and calculation ability under concrete instructions and exhaustive supervision
Knowledge Skill A level at which basic general knowledge such as understanding of characters and calculation ability can be used and simple and repetitive tasks are performed
Ability A level at which tasks are performed under concrete instructions and exhaustive supervision

3.3 Word-Clustering Analysis

In order to raise awareness and understanding of NCS, the government conducts various publicity and training projects for teachers at schools and vocational education and training institutions at all levels. It also provides guidelines for applying the developed standards. It is actively inducing the use of NCS.
As a result of these various efforts, interest in NCS has been increasing in the field of vocational high schools, colleges, vocational training institutes and industries including meister high schools. Particularly, in the case of vocational training institutes, the training course using NCS is actively operated. Some professional colleges and universities are piloting NCS-based curriculum. It is expected that the development and application of NCS – based curriculum will be greatly expanded in vocational colleges.
If the required job is decided by the educational institution, it is necessary to develop the subject for each job. However, the situation is different when it is an early stage of the policy to develop the task based on the educational institution. In other words, we need to find the most talked-about part of NCS. The purpose of this study was to find the most frequently mentioned words in the NCS classification system and to find out related tasks.
The result of word clustering using the R program is as follows.
Table 3.
Word-Clustering Analysis
Rank Noun Counts Rank Noun Counts
1 Management 1279 26 Machine 129
2 Design 542 27 Processing 124
3 Establish 362 28 Production 123
4 Analysis 309 29 Preparations 118
5 Working 291 30 Environment 116
6 Development 247 31 Produce 114
7 Plan 212 32 Quality Management 114
8 Equipment 206 33 Support 113
9 Evaluation 206 34 Goods 110
10 System 203 35 Operation 108
11 Planning 199 36 Product 101
12 Operation 193 37 Quality 101
13 Maintenance 178 38 Electric 86
14 Contractors 176 39 design 85
15 Service 153 40 Device 84
16 Airline 152 41 Review 83
17 Check 146 42 Fair 81
18 Write 142 43 Material 81
19 Inspection 138 44 Strategy 79
20 Making 138 45 Corporation 77
21 Install 137 46 Research 77
22 Safety 136 47 Making Plan 75
23 Maintenance 132 48 Customer 73
24 Equipment 131 49 Instrument 73
25 Safety management 130 50 Marketing 70

4. Conclusions

NCS, National Competency Standards, is called "Job Request" in the field in Korea. Therefore, there is a word that is most often mentioned in the NCS can say that the most important word in the industry of Korea. As a result, the management words were repeated 1279 times in Word-Clustering Analysis. Therefore, management ability can be regarded as the most necessary job skill in Korean industry. After that, it is the order of design and establish ability, but if you combine the seventh plan with the eleventh planning, plan ability is more important than establish ability. Considering that Korea is one of the top 10 powerhouses in the global industry, the job skills required in today's industry are in the order of management, design, planning, design and analysis. Therefore, in order to carry out the job ability of the industry, the individual should try to improve the management ability and the design ability, and the government should improve the education environment so that the individual can improve this ability.
When constructing a curriculum, several learning modules may form one subject and one learning module may be divided into several subjects. Alternatively, some learning modules can be partially modified and utilized according to learner and school rating. In addition, some of the interrelated learning modules may be used as a major subject. In the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the method of creating the right curriculum can be partially utilized depending on the level of the learning contents constituting the specific learning module. By using practical NCS module, it is possible to supplement the existing textbook based on theory. In addition, it is possible to supplement the contents of the integrated course of theoretical and practical training or the curriculum based on the actual industrial field. The course will be based on the knowledge and skills of the NCS module used in the curriculum. It can also include literacy or basic vocational abilities that are emphasized in the NCS learning module used in the major curriculum.

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